Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavoring not involving heat, such as salad dressings and bread dippings like bread dips, and may be called edible oil. Most cooking oil in Nigeria is made from plants. This is the reason why the oil is often called vegetable oil. Vegetable oil is cooking oil produced from either soybean, groundnut, sesame seeds, palm fruits, etc.
The present production level of Cooking Oil in Nigeria is yet to meet the demand of Nigerians. There is currently a ban on the importation of vegetable oil into the country. The ban was placed in order to encourage local producers to expand their operations, and new investors to go into the production of Cooking Oil. This has made the business very lucrative.
This writeup will focus on cooking oil produced from soybean with soybean cake as a by-product.
The market for cooking oil is national. Cooking oil is consumed across all geo-political zones and socioeconomic classes. With a population of about 200 million people and an estimated national population growth of 2.56% per annum, an average economic growth rate of 2.5% per annum in the past ten (10) years, Nigeria has a large and growing market for soybean cooking oil and its by-products.
The demand is high but local supply low hence the need for importation in the past. Industry data suggests that Nigerian consumers use more than one million (1,000,000) tons of cooking oil annually. Study shows that there is still a shortfall in supply of cooking oil in the country. The shortfall in supply is estimated at about 300, 000 tons per year.
As the edible oil market has grown into a multi billion naira industry, so has the opportunity for small and medium oil mills/refineries to produce and supply products to the ever demanding and growing market.
Raw Materials Requirement
The basic raw material for the production of the cooking oil is soybean. Soybean, soybean, or soya bean is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses, including cooking oil production.
Nigeria remains the largest producer of soybean in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), followed by South Africa. Nigerian soybean production in marketing year 2021-22, which begins July 1, is projected to reach 1.25 million tonnes, a 43% increase from the most recent 2020-21 USDA estimate. Area harvested is projected at 1.2 million hectares, up 20% from the 2020-21 estimate.
Other raw materials that will be needed in the cooking oil production business are water, caustic soda, bleaching earth, vitamin supplements and packaging materials.
Machinery & Equipment Requirements
The major equipment needed in a small scale cooking oil production plant are: Seed toaster, Oil Expeller, Filter Press, Oil Refiner, Bag sewing machine and Weighing Scales.
The profitability of soybean oil production largely depends on the cost of the primary raw material, soyabean.
- As of the time of writing this report, the average cost of soyabean is N350,000 per ton. Depending on the quality of soybean, an average of 170 litres of oil and 800Kg of soybean cake is obtainable from processing 1 ton of soybean.
- The average factory price for soybean oil is nine hundred naira (N900) per liter while that of soybean cake is three hundred naira (N300) per kilogram.
This implies that a revenue of (N900 X 170) + (N310 X 800) = N393,000 is obtainable from processing 1 ton of soybean into oil and cake..
Gross Profit is calculated by subtracting the cost of production from the sales.
Gross Profit = N393,000 – N350,000 = N51,000
Assuming operating expenses (including cost of packaging) takes 20% of profits, profit realisable from processing 1 ton of soybean will be forty thousand, eight hundred naira (N40,800).
The proposed setup will have the capacity of processing 4 tons of soybean per day. This will translate to a profit of N40,800 X 4 = N163,200 per day.
If the factory works for 25 days per month and at 50% of the installed capacity, this will translate to a profit of N2,040,000 per month.
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